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Ornamental rocks (natural stones)

Since the time of the old Egypt civilization, the human being has used natural rocks as construction materials. The main body of the pyramid was built by limestone and the tomb was decorated by granite. The old Greece civilization used limestone and marble for civil construction and architecture. The use of rocks for urban constructions was enlarged during the Roman Empire. Certain rock names, such as syenite and basalt, have their origin from this time. Nowadays, the rocks compose an indispensable role for the urban beauty.

The rocks applied to ornamental use, such as wall covering and floor pavement, are granite and marble. These are usually used with surface polish. Carbonate rocks, with low hardness, such as marble and limestone, are called commercially marbles. They have been used traditionally for ornamental use because of relative easiness of cut and polish. On the other hand, silicate rocks, with high hardness, such as granite, gabbro, syenite, orthogneiss, granulite, charnockite, etc., are called granites. The uses of granites are growing in the recent decades. In spite of the relatively high cost, granites are used preferentially as noble ornamental rocks (natural stones), because of high lustre on polish surface, high mechanical resistance, and high chemical durability.

In addition to marbles and granites, there are other types of rocks used generally without surface polish, such as slate, quartzite, paramylonite, orthomylonite and welded tuff. They are of variable natures and many commercial names. For example, Brazilian rhyolitic welded tuff is called commercially Basalts. The application of these rocks to the constructions and consequent social contribution are the same or more than those of granites and marbles.


Motoki A; Zucco, L.L.; Vargas T; Neves, J.L.P. 2004. Basalto da Serra Gaúcha e sua relação com desenvolvimento regional do nordeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Anais do Segundo Congresso Brasileiro de Extensão Universitária, em CD, 8 pgs.
/fscommand/arquivos/Desenvolvimento/Desen5.pdf

Vargas T; Motoki A; Neves, J.L.P.; Zucco, L.L. 2004. Rochas ornamentais, um estudo para ensino básico. Anais do Segundo Congresso Brasileiro de Extensão Universitária, em CD, 7 pgs.
/fscommand/arquivos/Educacao/Educa167.pdf

Vargas T; Motoki A; Zucco, L.L.; Ferreira, A.; Costa N.C.Jr.; Adriano, L. 2004. Controle ambiental na extração de rocha ornamental, um exemplo de mineração de Basalto no município de Nova Prata, RS. V Semana UERJ de Meio Ambiente, UERJ, Rio de Janeiro, 01-04 de junho de 2004.

Motoki, A.; Vargas, T.; Zucco, L.L.; Neves, J.L.P.; Silva, M.; Freitas, A.; Melo, D.P. 2003. Classificação de rochas ornamentais por meio de medida quantitativa de cores com o auxílio de scanner. Bol. Res. 8 Simpósio de Geologia do Sudeste, 197.

Motoki, A.; Vargas, T.; Zucco, L.L. 2003. Basalt, a peculiar family of Brazilan porphyry. English version updated from Litos, 66, 52-63. Disposed at www.natural-stone.com
* Original Spahish version text here *.

Motoki, A.; Vargas, T.; Peixoto, J.L.N., Zucco, L.L. 2003. Pietre Naturali classificate per colori. L'Informatore del Marmistas, 493, 6-16.

Motoki, A.; Vargas, T.; Zucco, L.L. 2003. Basalto da Serra Gaúcha Pedras do Brasil, 10, 43-44.

Vargas, T.; Motoki, A.; Peixoto, J.L.N. 2001. Rochas ornamentais do Brasil, seu modo de ocorrência geológica, variedade tipológica, explotação comercial e utilidades como materiais nobres de construção. Revista de Geociências, LAGEMAR - UFF, 2-2, 119-132.

Motoki, A; Vargas, T.; Peixoto, J.L.N; Cario, F.D.; Loureiro, D.D. 2001. Análise quantitativa das cores de rochas ornamentais por meio de captura direta de imagens via scanner. Bol. Res. 7 Simp. Geol. Sudeste, 182. 27 de novembro - 10 de dezembro de 2001, UERJ, Rio de Janeiro.

Motoki A; Vargas T; Peixoto J.L.N. 2000. Análise quantitativa das cores de feldspato alcalino, nefelina e sodalita em rochas ornamentais Mineração Metarulgia, 554-06, 25-30.

Motoki A.; Vargas T.; Zucco, L.L.; Peixoto, J.L.N.; Cario, F.D.; Motoki, K.F. 1999. Captura direta de imagens macroscópicas de rochas via scanner. Mineração Metarulgia, 553-14, 25-30.



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